40 Incredible Examples of Optical Illusions in Photos | Bored Panda

 

applications of illusions

The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion consisting of three stylized arrows. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the midpoint, they invariably place it more towards the "tail" end. The illusion was devised by Franz Carl Müller-Lyer, a German sociologist, in A variation of the same effect consists of a set of arrow-like figures. Straight line segments of equal length comprise the . museum of illusions A visitor to the Museum of Illusions is not a passive observer but a full-fledged participant of the paintings created by the best artists. This is a place where photography is not just encouraged – it is part and parcel of the exhibition. Optical illusions (sometimes called also visual illusions) are cool images perceived in a manner that differs from objective reality. What the human eye sees is interpreted by the brain in a way that contradicts physical measurement of the source image.


Reality Check: 10 Practical Applications of Illusions - Scientific American


Although illusions are by definition not real, scientists are increasingly finding ways to use them to make an impact on the real world. Here are 10 practical applications that use or control illusions, from warships to virtual reality to Michelangelo's David and the Statue of Liberty.

All MP3s are based on illusion. How does MP3 compression work? It eliminates generally inaudible sounds. For example, if two sounds are presented simultaneously very close together in time, then depending on their frequency and intensity, the brain may only perceive one of them, a phenomenon known as masking.

After removing sounds that people cannot generally hear and then using traditional compression methods that encode redundant information to save space, MP3s can reduce the size of a sound file by 90 percent or so. Image: Thinkstock. Futuristic lightbulbs In cognitive neuroscientist Stephen Mackniknow at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, and his colleagues discovered an illusion that allows a light to essentially flicker off for 13 percent of the time yet appear as bright to the human brain as if it was on the entire time.

By creating a lightbulb that exploits this illusion, the researchers hope to create bulbs that save up to 20 percent on electricity bills, applications of illusions. Researchers have analyzed the flickering of lightbulbs for as long as they have existed. Macknik and his colleagues discovered that perceptions of brightness were not only linked with the duration of light flashes, but also with their periodicity.

Their findings suggest that if millisecond pulses of light were alternated with millisecond periods of darkness, applications of illusions, people would nonetheless perceive these light pulses as one and not as flickering. Macknik suggests this discovery could lead to lights that save energy and last longer. The savings might be dramatic—roughly a quarter of all electric power is applications of illusions for lighting, according to the U.

Energy Information Administration. The invention is patent pending, and Macknik has received a Applications of illusions Science Foundation grant to research the physiological underpinnings of this illusion in the brain.

Image: Cornell. Trimming waistlines Scientists have long known the Delboeuf illusion can make people misjudge the size of identical circles surrounded by larger circles.

The more empty space around the inner circle, the smaller it appears, applications of illusions. Similarly, in researchers Brian Wansink and Koert van Ittersum found that larger plates can make the same amount of food appear smaller and applications of illusions versa.

The scientists also noted that the average size of a dinner dish in the U. This finding suggests that using smaller plates might be one simple step to trim waistlines and waste less food. The Small Plate Movement now aims to get families and restaurants to use smaller dinnerware. Image: Honou via flickr.

Traffic jams Dips in the road, where the pavement shifts from downhill to uphill, applications of illusions, often lead to traffic jams. This means that at sags drivers often fail to realize they are going uphill and hence drive without accelerating to maintain applications of illusions, causing traffic slowdowns and jams. Scientists in Japan suggest that patterns of stripes on walls near roads might help counteract this illusion, helping smooth traffic applications of illusionssays researcher Akiyasu Tomoeda at Musashino University in Tokyo, applications of illusions.

The researchers are testing whether such patterns might work using driving simulators, he says. Image: Carlos Cruz via Wikimedia Commons, applications of illusions. Forced perspective Forced perspective relies on an optical illusion to make objects appear closer, farther, larger or smaller than they actually are, applications of illusions. For instance, in film, in the final scene of Casablanca the escape airplane was actually a miniature, flat cutout whereas the extras working on the craft were little people, which helped create the illusion of size.

Modern film versions of forced perspective include giant Hagrid in the Harry Potter movies and the dwarves and hobbits in the Lord of the Rings trilogy. In sculpture, classic examples of forced perspective include Michelangelo's David and the Statue of Liberty where the illusion helps make their proportions seem more natural when viewed from below. Forced perspective is applications of illusions used in amusement parks such as for Cinderella's Castle at Walt Disney World and the new Hogwarts Castle at Universal Studios to make those structures appear more impressive.

Image: OhMaGif, applications of illusions. Video Animation, films and online video all rely on an optical illusion known as the phi phenomenon, where still images viewed in rapid succession create the illusion of continuous motion. For instance, movies flash at least 24 still applications of illusions per second at viewers, flickering that is fast enough to create the illusion of smoothly moving images.

Virtual reality displays such as the Oculus Rift are based in part on decades of research into flight simulatorswhich in turn rests on centuries of knowledge from the art world on how to use optical illusions to applications of illusions the eye and mimic depth.

For example, using linear perspective to create the illusion of depth, lines converge and objects are drawn smaller in size to appear as if they are receding from the viewer. Using aerial perspective to make items seem as if they are farther away objects may be drawn blurrier and with applications of illusions tinge of blue to mimic the effect atmospheric haze has on the appearance of distant objects. Using shading painters can imitate the effects of light and shadow on solid objects to create the illusion of form.

Flight simulators add effects such as tilting, shaking and sound to make the illusions they display seem more realistic, applications of illusions.

Virtual reality also seeks to re-create experiences such as touch and space using wired gloves and omnidirectional treadmills as well as to enhance applications of illusions by simulating interaction between people and their virtual surroundings. Image: PLOSone. Dazzle camouflage Dazzle ships were warships painted in garish stripes and other bold patterns applications of illusions both world wars to confuse the enemy.

The idea was that dazzle camouflage would disrupt enemy perception of the range, heading, size, shape and speed of the ships and hence reduce losses from torpedo attacks by submarines. A commander of a German U-boat could only pop his periscope up for about five seconds maximum, says vision scientist Nick Scott-Samuel at the University of Bristol in England—any longer, and the periscope would leave a wake visible enough to leave the U-boat vulnerable to getting hit by depth charges, applications of illusions.

That's very hard to do, and the goal of dazzle patterns was to interfere with perception further. In experiments involving moving items on video screens Scott-Samuel and his colleagues found that dazzle patterns could indeed distort the perception of speedmost notably at high speeds. The researchers suggest that in a rocket-propelled grenade attack against a Land Rover moving at 90 kilometers per hour at a distance of about 70 meters, a typical distance for such an assault, dazzle camouflage may help the grenade miss where it was aimed by roughly one meter, which could be the difference between life and death for the vehicle occupants.

Telephones Smartphones and other telephones all rely on an auditory illusion known as the missing fundamental. Complex sounds such as speech or music are composed of many different frequencies of sound—for instance,and hertz. In that example the second and third frequency are multiples, known as harmonics, of the first and lowest frequency, called the fundamental, applications of illusions. Telephones usually only transmit sounds between about and 3, hertz due to their small, low-quality speakers.

The fundamental of adult voices is generally below hertz and that of the typical male voice is about to hertz, but over the phone we usually do not confuse adults with children nor men with women. So as long as we make use of the missing fundamental illusion, we can recognize a sound even though it might have a different frequency composition from one circumstance to the next.

Modern telephony takes advantage of this illusion by transmitting a smaller bandwidth of frequencies than is actually in any given conversation. The fact that phone systems transmit less information makes it possible for them to carry more calls on a single line, making them more cost-effective.

Image: PerceptionWeb. Swimsuits Why applications of illusions high-cut bathing suits make legs look long? In a study, Morikawa asked 76 undergraduates to look at drawings of a woman who wore either a high-cut bathing suit or calf-length tights. The students significantly overestimated the length of the woman's legs when she was in the swimsuit.

The most common version involves two lines of identical length, each with diagonal lines jutting out from their ends like fins or wings. The line with the outward-jutting wings looks longer than the line with the applications of illusions wings. Charles Q. Choi is a frequent contributor to Scientific American. In his spare time, he has traveled to all seven continents. You have free article s left, applications of illusions.

Already a subscriber? Sign in. See Subscription Options. MP3s All MP3s are based on illusion. Image: Thinkstock Futuristic lightbulbs In cognitive neuroscientist Stephen Mackniknow at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, and his colleagues discovered an illusion that allows a light to essentially flicker off for 13 percent of the time yet appear as bright to the human brain as if it was on the entire time.

Image: Cornell Trimming waistlines Scientists have long known the Delboeuf illusion can make people misjudge the size of identical circles surrounded by larger circles.

Image: Honou via flickr Traffic jams Dips in the road, where the pavement shifts from downhill to uphill, applications of illusions, applications of illusions lead to traffic jams.

Image: Carlos Cruz via Wikimedia Commons Forced perspective Forced perspective relies on an optical illusion to make objects appear closer, farther, applications of illusions, larger or smaller than they actually are, applications of illusions. Image: PLOSone Dazzle camouflage Dazzle ships were warships painted in garish stripes and other bold patterns during both world wars to confuse the enemy.

Image: Thinkstock Telephones Smartphones and other telephones all rely on an auditory illusion known as the missing fundamental. Choi Charles Q. Get smart.

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Müller-Lyer illusion - Wikipedia

 

applications of illusions

 

museum of illusions A visitor to the Museum of Illusions is not a passive observer but a full-fledged participant of the paintings created by the best artists. This is a place where photography is not just encouraged – it is part and parcel of the exhibition. The Ehrenstein illusion is an optical illusion studied by the German psychologist Walter Ehrenstein in which the sides of a square placed inside a pattern of concentric circles take an apparent curved shape. The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion consisting of three stylized arrows. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the midpoint, they invariably place it more towards the "tail" end. The illusion was devised by Franz Carl Müller-Lyer, a German sociologist, in A variation of the same effect consists of a set of arrow-like figures. Straight line segments of equal length comprise the .